We experienced a case of primary pulmonary biphasic synovial sarcoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and molecular testing of SYT-SSX2 fusion transcripts. The patient was a 61-year-old man who presented with a well-defined mass in the left upper lung field on chest radiography. Left upper lobectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. Histological and immunophenotypic features were consistent with biphasic synovial sarcoma. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, performed using RNA extracted from frozen tumor samples for the detection of SYT-SSX fusion gene, amplified a single 331-bp fragment that was characteristic of the SYT-SSX2 fusion transcripts. We report a case of primary pulmonary biphasic synovial sarcoma, which was confirmed by SYT-SSX2 fusion transcripts, and present a brief review of the literature on Korean cases.