Few reports exist regarding the association between onychomadesis and an enterovirus infection presenting clinically as hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). In February 2009, an outbreak of HFMD occurred in a Spanish nursery school, followed by onychomadesis 36-69 days later. Twelve of 17 children with HFMD developed nail shedding; enterovirus was detected in stool samples from eight (47%) of the 17. However, in only three of the children could an enterovirus serotype coxsackievirus B1 be identified. The epidemiological results of this study confirm onychomadesis as a complication in HFMD. In future outbreaks, molecular characterization of enterovirus from appropriate clinical samples should be studied.