Elevated homocysteine levels are defined as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), a disorder that is associated with cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases as well as with hepatic fibrosis. Recent studies have shown that HHcy promotes hepatic injury by increasing oxidative stress. Although homocysteine induces cell cycle arrest in a variety of different cell types, it is not known whether HHcy has a definitive role in hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. In this report, we investigated the effect of homocysteine on liver regeneration. Our results demonstrated that mice with HHcy exhibited an impairment in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, as measured by immunohistochemical staining of proliferation cell nuclear antigen and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Impaired proliferation was also correlated with reduced cyclin D1 induction and elevated expression levels of both p53 and p21Cip1. In addition, the phosphorylation of Akt, which plays an essential role in normal regeneration responses, was attenuated during the early phases of liver regeneration in HHcy mice. Our results also indicated that the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway mediated the inhibitory effect of homocysteine on liver regeneration. These findings provide evidence that impairment of liver regeneration by HHcy may result in delayed recovery from liver injury induced by homocysteine itself.