This study investigated the effects on metabolic cost and gait biomechanics of using a prototype lower-body exoskeleton (EXO) to carry loads. Nine US Army participants walked at 1.34 m/s on a 0% grade for 8 min carrying military loads of 20 kg, 40 kg and 55 kg with and without the EXO. Mean oxygen consumption (VO(2)) scaled to body mass and scaled to total mass were significantly higher, by 60% and 41% respectively, when the EXO was worn, compared with the control condition. Mean VO(2) and mean VO(2) scaled to body mass significantly increased with load. The kinematic and kinetic data revealed significant differences between EXO and control conditions, such as walking with a more flexed posture and braking with higher ground reaction force at heel strike when wearing the EXO. Study findings demonstrate that the EXO increased users' metabolic cost while carrying various loads and altered their gait biomechanics compared with conventional load carriage. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: An EXO designed to assist in load bearing was found to raise energy expenditure substantially when tested by soldiers carrying military loads. EXO weight, weight distribution and design elements that altered users' walking biomechanics contributed to the high energy cost. To realise the potential of EXOs, focus on the user must accompany engineering advances.
Nondimensionalize the system by the characteristic time and length to make the
Study more general. Through the study, it is found that the classical relative
Equilibria can always exist in the real physical situation. Numerical results
Suggest that the non-classical relative equilibria only can e...
We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when
Imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail
Appears >=350" (2.5x10^8 m) in length and extends approximately in the
Projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by...
This paper investigates the impact of electrode geometry on the performance
of polymer solar cells (PSCs). Four types of negative electrodes with equal
area (0.09 cm2) but different shape (round, oval, square, and triangular) are
evaluated with respect to short-circuit current density, open-circuit...
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