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The relation between anthropometric and physiological variables and bat velocity of high-school baseball players before and after 12 weeks of training.

Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 24(11):2933 (2010) PMID 20881505

The purpose of this article was to investigate the relation between anthropometric and physiological variables to linear bat swing velocity (BV) of 2 groups of high-school baseball players before and after completing a 12-week periodized resistance exercise program. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 training groups using a stratified sampling technique. Group 1 (n = 24) and group 2 (n = 25) both performed a stepwise periodized resistance exercise program and took 100 swings a day, 3 d·wk-1, for 12 weeks with their normal game bat. Group 2 performed additional rotational and full-body medicine ball exercises 3 d·wk-1 for 12 weeks. Fourteen variables were measured or calculated before and after 12 weeks of training. Anthropometric and physiological variables tested were height, body mass, percent body fat, lean body mass (LBM), dominant torso rotational strength (DTRS) and nondominant torso rotational strength (NDTRS), sequential hip-torso-arm rotational strength measured by a medicine ball hitter's throw (MBHT), estimated 1 repetition maximum parallel squat (PS) and bench press (BP), vertical jump (VJ), estimated peak power, angular hip velocity (AHV), and angular shoulder velocity (ASV). The baseball-specific skill of linear BV was also measured. Statistical analysis indicated a significant moderately high positive relationship (p ≤ 0.05) between prelinear BV and pre-NDTRS for group 1, pre-LBM, DTRS, NDTRS, peak power, and ASV for group 2; moderate positive relationship between prelinear BV and preheight, LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, PS, and ASV for group 1, preheight, body mass, MBHT, BP, and PS for group 2. Significantly high positive relationships were indicated between postlinear BV and post-NDTRS for group 1, post-DTRS and NDTRS for group 2; moderately high positive relationships between postlinear BV and post-LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, and PS for group 1, postheight, LBM, VJ, peak power for group 2; moderate positive relationships between postlinear BV and postheight, body mass, MBHT, and VJ for group 1, postbody mass, MBHT, BP, PS, and ASV for group 2. Significantly low positive relationships were indicated between prelinear BV and prebody mass, MBHT, and VJ for group 1, pre-VJ and AHV for group 2; postlinear BV and post-AHV for group 2. These data show that significant relationships do exist between height, body mass, LBM, rotational power, rotational strength, lower body power, upper and lower body strength, AHV, and ASV to linear BV of high-school baseball players. Strength coaches may want to consider using this information when designing a resistance training program for high-school baseball players. Those recruiting or scouting baseball players may want to use this information to further develop ways of identifying talented players. However, one should be cautious when interpreting this information when designing strength training programs for high-school baseball players to increase linear BV.

DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181f0a76a