The threshold level of urinary cadmium associated with increased urinary excretion of retinol-binding protein and beta 2-microglobulin: a re-assessment in a large cohort of nickel-cadmium battery workers.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the threshold value of urinary cadmium (CdU) for renal dysfunction on the basis of relationships unconfounded by protein degradation, diuresis and the renal effects associated with chronic smoking. Methods We studied 599 workers (451 men, mean age 45.4 years) who were employed in four nickel-cadmium battery plants for 18.8 years on average. After adjustment for covariates by multiple regression, the CdU threshold values for increased concentrations of retinol-binding protein (RBPU) and b(2)-microglobulin (b(2)-mU) were assessed by logistic regression and benchmark dose analyses using as referents workers with CdU10, respectively. The benchmark dose (BMD5) and the benchmark dose lower limit (BMDL5) for a 5% excess in the background prevalence of abnormal RBPU and b(2)-mU were estimated at 5.1/3.0 and 9.6/5.9. When excluding ever smokers, odds for abnormal RBPU and b(2)-mU were both increased only among workers with CdU>10 (OR, 21.8, 95% CI, 6.4-74.4 and OR, 15.1, 95% CI, 3.6-63.1, respectively). In never smokers, these BMD5/BMDL5 of CdU were estimated at 12.6/6.6 and 12.2/5.5 while in ever smokers they were 6.2/4.9 and 4.3/3.5. Conclusions On the basis of associations undistorted by smoking and adjusted for covariates, the BMDL5 of CdU for low-molecular-weight proteinuria induced by occupational exposure to Cd can be reliably estimated between 5.5 and 6.6 μg/g creatinine.
As opposed to pre-clinical findings for serum iron and cancer, this population-based epidemiological study showed an inverse relation between iron metabolism and cancer risk. Minimal role of inflammatory markers observed warrants further study focusing on developments of specific cancers....
We study an earthquake fault model based on Olami-Feder-Christensen
(OFC) and Rundle-Jackson-Brown (RJB) cellular automata models with particular
Aspects of spatial heterogeneities and long-range stress interactions. In our
Model some localized stress accumulators are added into the system by
pH has a pronounced effect on quinolone-mediated killing, which may be attributed to the dependence of cellular uptake on quinolone ionisation state. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: These results provide rationale for use of these agents for P. mirabilis eradication in alkaline environments, inclu...
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