Chronic stimulation of β-adrenoceptors with β-adrenoceptor agonists (β-agonists) can induce substantial skeletal muscle hypertrophy, but the mechanisms mediating this muscle growth have yet to be elucidated. We investigated whether chronic β-adrenoceptor stimulation in mice with the β-agonist formoterol alters the muscle anabolic response following β-adrenoceptor stimulation. Twelve-week-old C57BL/6 mice were treated for up to 28 days with a once-daily injection of either saline (control, n = 9) or formoterol (100 μg kg⁻¹; n = 9). Rates of muscle protein synthesis were assessed at either 1, 7 or 28 days of treatment, 6 h after injection. Protein synthesis rates were higher in formoterol-treated mice at day 7 (∼1.5-fold, P < 0.05), but not at day 1 or 28. The increased muscle protein synthesis was associated with increased phosphorylation of S6K1 (r = 0.49, P < 0.01). Formoterol treatment acutely reduced maximal calpain activity by ∼25% (P < 0.05) but did not affect atrogin-1 protein levels and proteasome-mediated proteolytic activity, despite significantly enhanced phosphorylation of Akt (P < 0.05). Formoterol increased CREB phosphorylation by ∼30% (P < 0.05) and PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) by 11-fold (P < 0.05) on day 1 only. These observations identify that formoterol treatment induces muscle anabolism, by reducing calpain activity and by enhancing protein synthesis via increased PI-3 kinase/Akt signalling.
We propose a probabilistic Monte Carlo
Approach to the distributed modeling of shallow rainfall-induced landslides.
For the purpose, we have modified the TRIGRS code. The new code (TRIGRS-P)
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Noncoherent trellis-coded quantization (NTCQ), whose encoding complexity scales
Linearly with the number of antennas. The approach exploits the duality between
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Furthermore, since noncoherent detection can be re...
These results are established using a simulation study, and are then
illustrated with our motivating study on air pollution and respiratory ill
health in Greater Glasgow, Scotland in 2010. The model shows substantial health
effects of particulate matter air pollution and income deprivation, whose
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