CD11b+GR1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) accumulate in several inflammatory conditions including cancer, infections, or trauma. MDSCs are found in bone marrow and lymphoid organs and suppress both innate and adaptive immune responses. Although mechanisms of suppression are not fully understood, they have been reported to require cell-cell contact and very often implicate L-arginine metabolism. We and others recently observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration, as other TLR ligands, induces MDSC. In this case, MDSC regulate immune response independently of L-arginine metabolism through heme oxygenase-1 activity. Manipulating MDSC as immunoregulators represents an attractive approach for cancer immunotherapy or transplantation. Herein, we describe methods for expanding and purifying MDSC, as well as in vitro and in vivo techniques to measure their suppressive functions.
During the evolution on the AGB, S-type stars are the first objects to
experience s-process nucleosynthesis and third dredge-ups, and therefore to
exhibit sprocess signatures in their atmospheres. Their significant mass loss
rates (10^-7 to 10^-6 M*/year) make them major contributors to the AGB
In this fluid dynamics video, the vapour cloud generated near evaporating
free liquid surfaces is visualised by Mach-Zehnder interferometry (MZI). More
precisely, for evaporating HFE-7100 (from 3M) and ambient conditions, the
vapour concentration field and its dynamical behaviour are observed in th...
Yeast permeases, that act as transporters for nutrients including amino acids, nucleobases and metals, provide a powerful model system for dissecting the physiological control of membrane protein trafficking. Modification of these transporters by ubiquitin is known to target them for...
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