The storage of the different microorganisms over long periods is necessary to ensure reproducible results and continuity in research and in biomedical processes and also for commercial purposes. Effective storage means that a microorganism is maintained in a viable state free of contamination or genetic drift and must be easily restored without genotypic or phenotypic alterations to its original characteristics and properties. To this end, different techniques have been described and advances in cryopreservation technology have led to methods that allow low-temperature maintenance of a variety of cell types, minimizing the risks of genetic change and are now recommended for long-term storage of most microorganisms.This chapter summarizes the most important steps and components in the process of low- and -ultra-low temperatures freezing of bacteria, parasites, yeasts and fungi, viruses, and recombinant microorganisms.
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