Familial diseases leading to bone tumor formation are rare. They are mainly caused by genetic alterations of cell cycle constituent genes, such as retinoblastoma syndrome (RB1) and Li-Fraumeni syndrome (p53), of genes involved in growth-regulating transcriptional cascades, such as enchondromatosis (PTHR1) and multiple hereditary exostoses (EXT1, EXT2) or of genes maintaining chromosomal stability, such as Rothmund-Thomson (RECQL4), Werner (WRN) and Bloom syndromes (BLM). This leads to multiple benign bone tumors, which may undergo secondary malignant transformation (enchondromatosis: enchondromas, multiple hereditary exostoses: osteochondromas) or bone sarcomas, mainly osteosarcomas, such as primary (Li-Fraumeni, Rothmund-Thomson, Werner and Bloom syndromes) or secondary manifestations (retinoblastoma syndrome) of the underlying disease. Some of these lesions also carry an increased risk for developing additional malignant diseases. In contrast to sporadically occurring similar tumors, differences in manifestation in time, topography or histology may be present which can aid in the correct recognition of the underlying syndrome.