Lead and bisphenol A concentrations in the Canadian population.
Lead is a known toxicant that occurs naturally in the environment. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical used primarily in polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. It has been 30 years since lead exposure was measured at a national level, and it is the first time for a national assessment of BPA exposure. Data are from the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measure Survey. Lead in whole blood (PbB) and urinary BPA were measured in 5319 and 5476 respondents aged 6 to 79, respectively. Geometric means (GMs) are presented by age group and sex for PbB (pg/dL), volume-based BPA (microg/L), and creatinine-standardized BPA (microg/g creatinine). Adjusted least squares geometric means (LSGMs) for PbB and BPA are presented by selected covariates. PbB was detected in 100% of the population, with a GM concentration of 1.34 microg/dL. Adults aged 60 to 79 and males had significantly higher GM PbB concentrations. Lower household income, being born outside Canada, living in a dwelling at least 50 years old, current or former smoking, and drinking alcohol at least once a week were associated with higher PbB concentrations. Urinary BPA was detected in 91% of the population, with a GM concentration of 1.16 microg/L (1.40 microg/g creatinine). Children aged 6 to 11 had significantly higher GM creatinine-standardized BPA concentrations than did other age groups. Although PbB concentrations have declined dramatically since the 1970s, socio-demographic characteristics, the age of dwellings, and certain lifestyle behaviours are associated with higher levels. Given the short half-life of orally ingested BPA and the high frequency of detection, the CHMS data suggest continual widespread exposure in the Canadian population.