The present investigation examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among First Nations adults in Canada (N = 220). It was considered that specific aspects of ethnic identity (in-group affect, centrality, in-group ties) could serve as resilience and/or vulnerability factors. Whereas in-group affect (positive feelings regarding one's group) was directly associated with decreased depressive symptoms and buffered against perceived discrimination, high levels of centrality (salience of group membership) was associated with increased symptomatology and intensified the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. In-group ties (connection to other group members) buffered against perceived discrimination, although this protective effect only applied for males. The data underscore the importance of examining different aspects of identity and gender differences in determining the role of ethnic identity in the well-being of minority populations.