Acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis associated with Campylobacter jejuni enteritis - a case report and review of the literature on C. jejuni's potential to trigger immunologically mediated renal disease.
Kidney disease is a rare complication of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) enteritis. We here present the case of an 18-year-old male patient with crampy abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and fever. Three weeks later urinalysis revealed mild proteinuria and hematuria and a marked raise in serum creatinine was observed. Renal biopsy demonstrated acute endocapillary glomerulonephritis with mesangial IgM (immunoglobuline M) deposits. Extensive workup revealed no signs of skin or joint disease, thus excluding Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Due to persistent abdominal discomfort further gastro-enterological tests were performed and eventually Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from the patient's feces. In the absence of other precipitating factors for renal diseases we presumed an association between the bacterial infection and this postinfectious glomerulonephritis. Over a time period of 6 months the patient's kidney function normalized completely. However, long-term prognosis remains unclear. In addition to the case report, we conducted a review of the literature with results underlining Campylobacter jejuni's potential to trigger various types of immune mediated kidney diseases.