Effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides on satiety responses in healthy men and women
In view of a dramatic increase in the incidence of obesity, the present study examined the appetite effects of a functional fiber as a potential dietary intervention. Fiber may increase satiety. Satiety effects also may be linked to colonic fermentation. Short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS) are fermentable fibers that can be added to foods to influence these actions. The primary objective of this study was to determine if scFOS affects satiety and hunger and has an additive effect on food intake. Using a double-blind crossover design, 20 healthy subjects were assigned to consume two separate doses of 0g, 5g, or 8g of scFOS. The first dose was mixed into a hot cocoa beverage and served with a breakfast meal of a bagel and cream cheese. A beverage was used in the test meal due to the ease with which scFOS can be added to this medium. Satiety was assessed with visual analogue scales (VASs) at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240min. Ad libitum food intake was measured at a lunch meal provided at the test site at 240min. Subjects then recorded their food intake over the remainder of the 24-h study day. The second dose of scFOS was consumed in the form of 3 solid, chocolate-flavored chews (51-67 total kcal) without additional food or drink, 2h prior to the subject's dinner meal. Breath hydrogen measures were collected prior to the breakfast test meal (0min) and the ad libitum lunch (240min). Gastrointestinal tolerance was evaluated over the course of the 24-h study day using VAS. All treatments were well tolerated. No differences in subjective satiety over the morning, or food intake at lunch, were found. Over the remainder of the day, the high dose of scFOS reduced food intake in women, but increased food intake in men, suggesting a gender difference in the longer-term response. Breath hydrogen, used as a marker of fermentation, increased in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that scFOS undergoes fermentation within 240min; however, acceptable amounts of scFOS did not enhance acute satiety or hunger.
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