Toxicity evaluation of water samples collected near a hospital waste landfill through bioassays of genotoxicity piscine micronucleus test and comet assay in fish Astyanax and ecotoxicity Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna.
In this study, we analyzed samples of water from a river and a lake located near a hospital waste landfill with respect to physico-chemical parameters and conducted bioassays of ecotoxicity using Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna, which are species commonly used to evaluate the water toxicity. We also evaluated damage to the genetic material of fish (Astyanax sp. B) that were exposed (96 h) to water from these two sites that were located near the tank ditch, using the alkaline comet assay and the piscine micronucleus test. Parameters including aluminum, manganese, biochemical oxygen demand, sulfide, conductivity, phenol, total coliforms and Escherichia coli counts, were above acceptable levels that have been established in environmental legislation. However, the toxicity bioassays that we carried out in Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna and the piscine micronucleus test in fish showed no immediate risk due to acute effects. Based on the results of the comet assay, however, it was possible to detect damage to genetic material in fish that were acutely exposed in the laboratory to water samples from the river and lake that are located near the trench septic tank. Thus, our results suggest that tests beyond those usually employed to test water toxicity, such as the comet assay we used in the fish, are required to assess the toxicity of water with greater accuracy.
We disclose full details of our investigation into the synthesis of isobongkrekic acid, which culminated in its first preparation and features various palladium-catalysed cross-couplings and Takai olefination reactions. Access to bongkrekic acid is also reported by this route. These syntheses involv...
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