Nosocomial methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia - epidemiology and trends based on data of a network of 586 German ICUs (2005-2009).
The epidemiology of MRSA pneumonia varies across countries. One of the most import risk factors for the development of nosocomial MRSA pneumonia is mechanical ventilation. Methicillin resistance in S. aureus ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) ranged between 37 % in German, 54 % in the US American and 78 % in Asian and Latin American ICUs. In 2009, the incidence density of nosocomial VAP caused by MRSA was 0.28 per 1000 ventilation days in a network of 586 German ICUs. Incidences peaked in neurological and neurosurgical ICUs. Crude hospital mortality in studies performed after 2005 lay between 27 % and 59 % and attributable MRSA pneumonia mortality at 40 %. Since 2005, US American and German data indicate decreasing trends for MRSA pneumonia. Measures to reduce MRSA pneumonia or to control the spread of MRSA include hand hygiene, standard and contact precautions, oral contamination with chlorhexidine, skin decontamination with antiseptics, screening, and (possibly) patient isolation in a single room.
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