In Japan, a revised act on organ transplantation is enforced from July 2010. This act enables an infant or a child with brain death to become a donor for organ transplantation under the consent of his or her family members. New diagnostic criteria have been set for children under six years of age. Diagnosis of brain death in infancy and childhood requires special caution, since an infant's brain has special features. The causes of brain death also vary according to the age. The new criteria exclude from candidates of donor neonates and infants under 12 weeks of corrected age, as well as cases in which the possibility of child abuse cannot be completely denied. The time interval between two diagnostic procedures must be 24 hours or more.