Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major public health challenge in Brazil, especially in states where it is endemic. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of sand fly population density with environmental variables (temperature, rainfall and relative humidity) in urban areas of the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. Sand flies were captured with Center Disease Control (CDC) traps installed monthly in the intra and peridomicile of three houses. Data analysis was based on the chi-square test and linear regression. A total of 7,347 sand flies were captured, being 93.85% Lutzomyia longipalpis and 6.15% Lutzomyia evandroi. Sand flies were more commonly found in the peridomicile and there was no difference between the number of males and females. The variables rainy season as well as relative humidity and rainfall, alone or together, did not have an effect on sand fly population density. However, high temperatures had a negative effect. The study of the behavior of sand flies in specific units of endemic areas can provide input to public health authorities for planning appropriate VL vector control measures.
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