Vertebral and metaphyseal dysplasia, spasticity with cerebral calcifications, and strong predisposition to autoimmune diseases are the hallmarks of the genetic disorder spondyloenchondrodysplasia. We mapped a locus in five consanguineous families to chromosome 19p13 and identified mutations in ACP5, which encodes tartrate-resistant phosphatase (TRAP), in 14 affected individuals and showed that these mutations abolish enzyme function in the serum and cells of affected individuals. Phosphorylated osteopontin, a protein involved in bone reabsorption and in immune regulation, accumulates in serum, urine and cells cultured from TRAP-deficient individuals. Case-derived dendritic cells exhibit an altered cytokine profile and are more potent than matched control cells in stimulating allogeneic T cell proliferation in mixed lymphocyte reactions. These findings shed new light on the role of osteopontin and its regulation by TRAP in the pathogenesis of common autoimmune disorders.