5-bromo-2-deoxyurudine (BrdU) can be used as a methodological tool for in vivo investigations following in vitro prelabeling of isolated stem cells for subsequent cell tracking within the recipient host. The objective of this study was to determine how useful BrdU may be as a labeling modality for adipose derived stem cells (ASC) by examining BrdU toxicity, BrdU intracellular stability, and potential effects on ASC differentiation. Porcine and human ASC (pASC and hASC, respectively) were labeled with BrdU at 5 or 10 μM for 2, 6, 24, and 48 h. BrdU toxicity and stability over time in monolayer cultures, in 3-D collagen scaffolds implanted to a porcine model and after thawing from long-term storage were evaluated by MTT assays and immunohistochemistry. ASC differentiation was evaluated by Oil Red O staining. BrdU was not cytotoxic at all tested concentrations and incubation times. BrdU color intensity within each cell and the number of ASC labeled with BrdU decreased as a function of both incubation time and BrdU concentrations. Labeling intensities decreased over time and were undetectable after 6 passages for pASC and 4 passages for hASC. In 3-D scaffolds, BrdU-labeled ASC were identifiable after 90 days of in vitro cultures and for 30 days in a porcine model. BrdU did not prevent preadipocyte differentiation and BrdU labeling was still detectable after subsequent thawing after long-term storage of ASC. BrdU is an excellent candidate reagent to label and track ASC that will allow distinction between BrdU-labeled donor cells and host cells. The data provides a foundation for conducting future tissue engineering projects using BrdU-labeled ASC.
In this paper, Sphere Decoding (SD) algorithms for Spatial Modulation (SM)
are developed to reduce the computational complexity of Maximum-Likelihood (ML)
detectors. Two SDs specifically designed for SM are proposed and analysed in
terms of Bit Error Ratio (BER) and computational complexity.
We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH3COOCH3, through the
Detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin
States of the molecule: AA species (A1 or A2), EA species (E1), AE species
(E2), EE species (E3 or E4). We also report the detection, for the first time
We were able to generate two neuroblastoma cell populations - lung micrometastatic (MicroNB) cells and lung macrometastatic (MacroNB) cells. These two types of cells share the same genetic background, invade the same distant organ, but differ in their ability to create metastasis in the lungs. We hy...
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