[Long-term outcome of lung transplantation].
Lung transplantation (LTx) nowadays is an established therapeutic option for various end-stage lung diseases in despite of an optimal medical therapy in selected patients affected with various pathologies such as emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis (CF) and various forms of bronchiectasis, pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. Progress and refinement over the last two decades in both surgical techniques and medical management including especially the introduction of cyclosporine A, have been impressive. Patient survival improved significantly over time. According to the most recent data of the International Registry of Lung Transplantation (ISHLT), actuarial survival is 79%, 63%, 52% and 29% at 1, 3, 5 and 10 years respectively, with a current overall survival half-life of 5.3 years, and more than 7 years for those who survived 1 year or more. However, survival depends on different parameters such as the underlying disease, data relative to the donor, the recipient and/or the transplant procedure. Major limitation of long-term survival is still chronic allograft dysfunction, which is histologically represented by an obliterative bronchiolitis and functionally by the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). In uncomplicated cases near-normalization of pulmonary function is the rule, with more than 80% of survivors at 1, 3, 5 and 10 years reporting no activity limitations. Functional results after single LTx remain lower than those of the bilateral LTx, and depend on the potential worsening of the underlying disease and complications arising on the native lung. Exercise performance usually is approximately 50% of predicted, suggesting extrapulmonary causes such as side effects of immunosuppressive drugs. Quality of life improves significantly in all domains including employment status.
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