Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of posaconazole for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: clinical implications for antifungal therapy.
Posaconazole is a triazole with anti-Aspergillus activity. However, little is known about the utility of posaconazole as primary therapy for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. An in vitro model of the human alveolus was used to study the impact of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) on exposure-response relationships. The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of posaconazole were examined in an inhalational murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. A mathematical model was fitted to the entire data set. This model was then used to describe the relationship between drug exposure, quantified in terms of the area under the concentration time curve to MIC (AUC:MIC) and the observed antifungal effect. The posaconazole MIC was an important determinant of exposure-response relationships and accounted for a portion of the observed variance. Murine pharmacokinetics were linear for dosages 1-20 mg/kg/day. There was a dose-dependent decline in serum galactomannan concentrations, with near-maximal suppression following 20 mg/kg/day. The murine pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data were well described by the mathematical model. An AUC:MIC ratio of 167 was associated with half-maximal antifungal effect. These results provide the experimental foundation for the selection of candidate posaconazole regimens for the primary treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in profoundly neutropenic hosts.
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