Precise identification of NK-cell populations in humans and nonhuman primates has been confounded by imprecise phenotypic definitions. A common definition used in nonhuman primates, including chimpanzees, is CD3(-) CD8α(+) CD16(+) , and this is the dominant NK-cell phenotype in peripheral blood. However, recent data suggest that in chimpanzees a rare CD8α(-) CD16(+) population also exists. Herein, we present evidence validating the existence of this rare subset in chimpanzee peripheral blood, but also demonstrating that gating on CD3(-) CD8α(-) CD16(+) cells can inadvertently include a large number of CD16(+) myeloid DCs (mDCs). We confirmed the inclusion of mDCs in CD3(-) CD8α(-) CD16(+) gated cells by demonstrating high expression of CD11c, BDCA-1 and HLA-DR, and by the lack of expression of NKp46 and intracellular perforin. We also functionally validated the CD8α(-) NK-cell and mDC populations by mutually exclusive responsiveness to a classical NK-cell stimulus, MHC class I-deficient cells, and a prototypic mDC stimulus, poly I:C, respectively. Overall, these data demonstrate common problems with gating of NK cells that can lead to erroneous conclusions and highlight a critical need for consensus protocols for NK-cell phenotyping.
We instead refer these
Methods as "summation" and "averaging" methods respectively. In this work, we
Show that these two methods for computing the hydrostatic mass bias are
Equivalent by demonstrating that the equation used in the second method can be
Derived from taking spatial averages of the Eule...
We provide standardised precise definitions of "missing at
Random" and "missing completely at random", in order to promote unification of
The theory. Using these definitions we clarify the conditions that suffice for
"valid inference" to be obtained under a variety of inferential paradigms....
ABSTRACT Data of 125 patients of cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) regarding BAALC and combinatorial molecular markers at diagnosis were evaluated. Fewer patients with higher BAALC expression at diagnosis achieved complete remission (CR) (49.2 vs. 75.8%, p=0.002)...
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