Tunable solvatochromic response of newly synthesized antioxidative naphthalimide derivatives: intramolecular charge transfer associated with hydrogen bonding effect.
The solvatochromic behavior of two newly synthesized naphthalimide derivatives (I and II) which have potential antioxidative activities in anticarcinogenic drug development treatment, has been monitored in protic and aprotic solvents of different polarity applying steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The compounds exhibit unique photophysical response in different solvent environments. The spectral trends do not appear to originate only from changes in the solvent polarity but also indicate that hydrogen bonding interactions and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) influence the energy of electronic excitation of the compounds. Incorporation of an amino group at C(4) position of the naphthalimide ring in II makes it behave differently from I in terms of spectral characterization and fluorescence efficacy of the systems. The nonradiative relaxation process of the compounds is governed by medium polarity. The ground state geometry, lowest energy transition, and the UV-vis absorption energy of the compounds were studied using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G* level, which showed that the calculated outcomes were in good agreement with experimental data.
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