DMAP1 (DNMT1-associated protein 1) is a member of the TIP60-p400 complex that maintains embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency and a complex containing the somatic form of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1s). DMAP1 interacts with DNMT1s through a domain that is absent in Dnmt1(V)(/)(V) mice expressing just the oocyte form (DNMT1o). A Dmap1-null allele was generated to study the role of DMAP1 in development. Consistent with the phenotypes of loss of other members of the TIP60-p400 complex, Dmap1(-/-) mice died during preimplantation in both Dnmt1(+/+) and Dnmt1(V)(/)(V) backgrounds. Unexpectedly, in the Dnmt1(V)(/)(V) background, Dmap1(+/-) parents produced mainly Dmap1(+/-) mice. Most Dmap1(+/+) progeny died during midgestation, with loss of DNA methylation on imprinted genes, suggesting that DMAP1 influences maintenance methylation mediated by DNMT1o. In this regard, a DMAP1-DNMT1o complex was detected in ES cells when DNMT1o was stably expressed but not when transiently expressed, indicating a novel interaction between DMAP1 and DNMT1o. These results suggest that DMAP1-DNMT1s and DMAP1-DNMT1o interactions are essential for normal development and that DMAP1-DNMT1o complexes are not readily formed in the embryo. Therefore, DMAP1 mediates distinct preimplantation epigenetic reprogramming processes: TIP60-p400 nucleosome remodeling and DNMT1 maintenance methylation.
We develop expressions for the Lyapunov exponents for the
Cases of white and colored noise. The situation described here being
`multi-resonance' -- by nature well beyond the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser regime,
It offers an analytic glimpse on the regime in which many near-integrable
Systems, such as som...
We present the possibility of tuning the spin-wave band structure,
Particularly the bandgaps in a nanoscale magnonic antidot waveguide by varying
The shape of the antidots. The effects of changing the shape of the antidots on
The spin-wave dispersion relation in a waveguide have been carefully monit...
: EVE sets in motion various mechanisms including mechanical stimulation, edema, ischemia and inflammation that over distinct time periods maintain an environment conducive to cell proliferation and angiogenesis, which can be elicited even by a single 2 hour EVE cycle....
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