Salinity in agricultural land is a major problem worldwide, placing a severe constraint on crop growth and productivity in many regions, and increased salinization of arable land is expected to have devastating global effects. Though plants vary in their sensitivity to salt stress, high salinity causes water deficit and ion toxicity in many plant species. Considerable efforts have therefore been made to investigate how genes respond to salt stress in various plants by using several approaches, including proteomics. Proteomic approaches for identifying proteins that are regulated in response to salt stress are becoming common in the post-genomics era of crop research. In this review, we describe the physiological and biological changes in the proteomes of several important food crops under salt stress. We also provide a viewpoint into how proteomics-based research is likely to develop in this field.