Invasive species cause deep impacts on ecosystems worldwide, contributing to the decline and extinction of indigenous species. Effective defences against native biological threats in indigenous species, whether structural or inducible, often seem inoperative against invasive species. Here, we show that tadpoles of the Iberian green frog detect chemical cues from indigenous predators (dragonfly nymphs) and respond by reducing their activity and developing an efficient defensive morphology against them (increased tail depth and pigmentation). Those defensive responses, however, were not activated against a highly damaging invasive predator (red swamp crayfish). Induced defences increased tadpole survival when faced against either indigenous dragonflies or invasive crayfish, so its inactivation in the presence of the invasive predator seems to be due to failure in cue recognition. Furthermore, we tested for local adaptation to the invasive predator by comparing individuals from ponds either exposed to or free from crayfish. In both cases, tadpoles failed to express inducible defences against crayfish, indicating that ca 30 years of contact with the invasive species (roughly 10-15 frog generations) have been insufficient for the evolution of recognition of invasive predator cues.
We study the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game,
Focusing on the effects that are brought about by the delayed distribution of
Goods that accumulate in groups due to the continuous investments of
Cooperators. We find that intermediate delays enhance network reciprocity
We demonstrate that the actin-Capping Protein (CP) αβ heterodimer, which regulates actin filament (F-actin) polymerization, limits Src-induced apoptosis or tissue overgrowth by restricting JNK activation. We show that overexpressing Src64B drives JNK-independent loss of epithelial integrity and JN...
We use pair and environmental classifications of ~ 211,000 star-forming
Galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, along with a suite of merger
Simulations, to investigate the enhancement of star formation as a function of
Separation in galaxy pairs. Using a new technique for distinguishing between...
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