Adrenal lesions are commonly identified in patients with extra-adrenal cancer. When lesions are present, it is important to identify if the lesion is a metastasis of the primary cancer or a primary adrenal neoplasm. If primary, the adrenal lesion must be evaluated for hypersecretion and its malignant potential determined for appropriate treatment planning.
Recent literature was reviewed that focused on the normal investigation of adrenal lesions including radiographic imaging and hormonal evaluations as well as specific focused therapeutic options available for isolated metastatic adrenal lesions.
This review presents a pathway approach in investigating these lesions and also discusses various potential treatment options.
A proper investigative workup of an adrenal lesion in a cancer patient is critical for proper management. Isolated adrenal metastatic lesions in the cancer patient should be surgically removed when possible, but other options can be considered. In patients who do not have metastasis from extra-adrenal cancer, the decision for surgical resection is dependent on functionality of the tumor and it's potential for malignancy. Observation plays a key role in those tumors that are nonfunctioning and have a low risk of malignancy.