Induction of lactadherin mediates the apoptosis of endothelial cells in response to advanced glycation end products and protective effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 and resveratrol.
One of characteristics of diabetes mellitus (DM) is endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and apoptosis which contributes to the development of vasculopathy. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) continuously produced in the setting of DM play an important role in causing EC dysfunction and apoptosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely elusive. Lactadherin, a secreted glycoprotein of milk-fat globule, is expressed by multiple cell types of arterial wall including ECs. Our previous proteomic studies showed that the expression of lactadherin was significantly increased in the aorta of diabetic rats as compared with control rats and treatment with grape seed procyanidin extracts significantly inhibited the lactadherin expression in diabetic rats. We hypothesized that lactadherin plays a critical role in AGEs-induced EC apoptosis; grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2) and resveratrol protect against AGEs-induced EC apoptosis through lactadherin regulation. Our results showed that AGEs upregulated lactadherin expression and lactadherin RNA interference significantly attenuated AGEs-induced EC apoptosis. Overexpression of lactadherin increased EC apoptosis with up-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation suggesting the involvement of mitochondria apoptosis pathway. Mechanistically, overexpression of lactadherin reduced the phosphorylation of GSK3beta at baseline. Our study also revealed nine proteins interacting with lactadherin in HUVEC and study of these candidate proteins could unveil further underlying molecular mechanisms. In summary, our study identified lactadherin as a key player responsible for AGEs-induced EC apoptosis and antioxidants GSPB2 and resveratrol protect against AGEs-induced EC apoptosis by inhibiting lactadherin. Targeting lactadherin with antioxidant could be translated into clinical application in the fighting against DM complications.
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