Cellular messenger RNA levels are achieved by the combinatorial complexity of factors controlling transcription, yet the small number of molecules involved in these pathways fluctuates stochastically. It has not yet been experimentally possible to observe the activity of single polymerases on an endogenous gene to elucidate how these events occur in vivo. Here, we describe a method of fluctuation analysis of fluorescently labeled RNA to measure dynamics of nascent RNA--including initiation, elongation, and termination--at an active yeast locus. We find no transcriptional memory between initiation events, and elongation speed can vary by threefold throughout the cell cycle. By measuring the abundance and intranuclear mobility of an upstream transcription factor, we observe that the gene firing rate is directly determined by trans-activating factor search times.
We analyze high quality abundances data of solar neighborhood stars and show
That there are two distinct regimes of [alpha/Fe] versus age which we identify
As the epochs of the thick and thin disk formation. A tight correlation between
Metallicity and [alpha/Fe] versus age is clearly identifiable on...
Elastic gluon-gluon-quark (gluon-gluon-antiquark) scattering is studied in
perturbative QCD with 123 Feynman diagrams at the tree level. Individually
squared amplitudes and interference terms of the Feynman diagrams are derived.
With the elastic gluon-gluon-quark scattering and the elastic
The infection times of individuals in online information spread such as the
inter-arrival time of Twitter messages or the propagation time of news stories
on a social media site can be explained through a convolution of lognormally
distributed observation and reaction times of the individual partic...
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