Biomaterials advances in patches for congenital heart defect repair.
This article reviews current applications and novel candidate biomaterials for use as tissue-engineered scaffolds in pediatric cardiac tissue engineering. This overview of different types of biomaterials includes naturally derived and synthetic polymers and their biological, physical, and biomechanical properties for the use as a patch or baffle for surgical reconstruction of congenital heart defects. Applications and characteristics of composite biomaterials are highlighted with their respective feasibilities in use as cardiac scaffolds. Currently, a wide range of biomaterials has been introduced for cardiovascular reconstruction for complex congenital cardiac defects. However, there are still many remaining challenges for engineered tissue implantations.
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