Sarcoptic mange, caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. wombati, could be a significant threat to populations of southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons; SHNW) in Australia. Treatment is currently based on the off-label use of various parasiticidal drugs, with limited clinical efficacy trials. Our primary aim was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of a macrocyclic lactone, moxidectin, to assist in the development of effective treatment protocols. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined in four female SHNW following a single subcutaneous injection of 0.2 mg/kg moxidectin. Blood samples were collected for 38 days following injection (August-September 2008), for analysis using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The mean peak plasma concentration occurred at 13.6 hr, with a mean peak plasma level of 98.6 ng/ml. The mean elimination half-life was 5.03 days, resulting in a mean area under the curve of 377 ng.day/ml. The peak plasma moxidectin concentration was higher than that seen in livestock species but the plasma elimination half-life was shorter. This study suggests that a single injection of 0.2 mg/kg moxidectin may not be sufficient to clear a mange infection in this species.