Social interaction is a coregulated coupling activity that involves at least 2 autonomous agents. Numerous methodological and technical challenges impede the production of natural social interaction within an Magnetic Resonance Imaging environment under controlled conditions. To overcome the obstacle, we chose a simple format of social interaction, namely "interactive imitation" through a double-video system. We registered blood oxygen level-dependent activity of 23 participants during 2 imitative conditions: free (F) and instructed (I) episodes of imitating (i) and of being imitated (bi). In addition to the areas classically reported in instructed imitation tasks, 2 activation patterns were found, which differentiate the subconditions. Firstly, brain areas involved during decisional and attentional processes (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex , dorsal part of anterior cingulate gyrus [dACC], pre-SMA) were activated during all conditions except for instructed imitation-classically used in neuroimaging studies of imitation. Second, a greater activation in dACC and insula combined with an increased deactivation in the default mode network was observed when subjects were imitated compared with when they imitated. We suggest that these 2 patterns reflect the anticipation of the other's behavior and the engagement with others required by social interaction.