[Genetic differentiation in plants of the genus Cypripedium from Russia inferred from allozyme data].
Ten gene loci of nine enzyme systems (PGI, 6-PGD, NADHD, SKDH, GDH, PGM, DIA, ADH, GOT-1, and GOT-2) were analyzed in Cypripedium calceolus, C. macranthon, C. shanxiense, and C. ventricosum plants from the south of the Russian Far East. Alleles of loci 6-PGD, NADHD, GDH, ADH, GOT-1, and PGIproved to be diagnostic for C. calceolus and C. macranthon. Plants of C. shanxiense from Primorye and Sakhalin Island were monomorphic at all of the loci examined, and their allelic structure can be regarded as diagnostic for the species. The allelic structure for fragments of the C. calceolus population from the western and eastern parts of the species range differed in two loci, PGl and SKDH: alleles absent in C. calceolus plants from the western part of the range occurred at a high frequency in the plants of this species from the eastern part of the range (28 and 55 plants or 41% and 68%, respectively). These alleles were found in C. shanxiense. The genetic structure of C. shanxiense was similar to that of C. calceolus from the eastern part of the range, i.e., the region when these species are sympartic. The additional alleles in C. calceolus from the eastern part of the range might have appeared as a result of hybridization with C. shanxiense. Our results indicate that C. calceolus plants occuring on the territory of Russia form two groups that represent two different units of genetic diversity preservation. We suggest that C. x ventricosum plants in southern Primorye were formed by hybridization between C. macranthon and C. calceolus x C. shanxiense hybrids. Thus, they differ from plants inhabiting the Urals and West Siberia, which originated by hybridization between C. macranthon and C. calceolus. The population of C. x ventricosum presumably also consists of two plant groups differing in genetic structure, which should be regarded as two different units of preservation of this taxon.