Most freshwater diversity is arguably located in networks of rivers and streams, but, in contrast to lacustrine systems riverine radiations, are largely understudied. The extensive rapids of the lower Congo River is one of the few river stretches inhabited by a locally endemic cichlid species flock as well as several species pairs, for which we provide evidence that they have radiated in situ. We use more that 2,000 AFLP markers as well as multilocus sequence datasets to reconstruct their origin, phylogenetic history, as well as the timing of colonization and speciation of two Lower Congo cichlid genera, Steatocranus and Nanochromis. Based on a representative taxon sampling and well resolved phylogenetic hypotheses we demonstrate that a high level of riverine diversity originated in the lower Congo within about 5 mya, which is concordant with age estimates for the hydrological origin of the modern lower Congo River. A spatial genetic structure is present in all widely distributed lineages corresponding to a trisection of the lower Congo River into major biogeographic areas, each with locally endemic species assemblages. With the present study, we provide a phylogenetic framework for a complex system that may serve as a link between African riverine cichlid diversity and the megadiverse cichlid radiations of the East African lakes. Beyond this we give for the first time a biologically estimated age for the origin of the lower Congo River rapids, one of the most extreme freshwater habitats on earth.
We consider two models, based on chemical kinetics and chemical
Master equation, for describing assisted folding. In the passive model,
Applicable for class I substrates, transient interactions of misfolded
Structures with RNA chaperones alone are sufficient to destabilize the
We can find such
Certificates in every neighborhood of the origin but their properties depend on
The matrix of course and are hard to describe. If it is an integer matrix
However, we are guaranteed certificates of a complexity that is at most a
Constant times the binary encoding length of the matrix...
It has been shown that rotational lines observed in the Horsehead nebula PDR
are probably not caused by l-C3H+, as was originally suggested. In the search
for viable alternative candidate carriers, quartic force fields are employed
here to provide highly accurate rotational constants, as well as fu...
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