Fetal growth restriction is associated with reduced pancreatic β-cell mass, contributing to impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Exercise training increases β-cell mass in animals with diabetes and has long-lasting metabolic benefits in rodents and humans. We studied the effect of exercise training on islet and β-cell morphology and plasma insulin and glucose, following an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) in juvenile and adult male Wistar-Kyoto rats born small. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation performed on day 18 of pregnancy resulted in Restricted offspring born small compared with sham-operated Controls and also sham-operated Reduced litter offspring that had their litter size reduced to five pups at birth. Restricted, Control, and Reduced litter offspring remained sedentary or underwent treadmill running from 5 to 9 or 20 to 24 wk of age. Early life exercise increased relative islet surface area and β-cell mass across all groups at 9 wk, partially restoring the 60-68% deficit (P
We examine the photometric data for Fornax clusters, focussing our attention
On their horizontal branch color distribution and, when available, on the RR
Lyr variables fraction and period distribution. Based on our understanding of
The HB morphology in terms of varying helium content in the context...
We consider the limiting behavior of fluctuations of small noise diffusions
With multiple scales around their homogenized deterministic limit. We allow
Full dependence of the coefficients on the slow and fast motion. These
Processes arise naturally when one is interested in short time asymptotics of...
We examine the stellar mass-size relation for a sample of
Isolated galaxies interpreted as stellar systems where evolution has been
Mainly governed by internal processes. Effects of environment on the stellar
Mass-size relation are evaluated by comparing our results with samples of less
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