Phase I clinical studies of antineoplaston A3 injections.
Antineoplaston A3 is an oxidated mixture of small peptides and amino acid derivatives isolated from human urine which have shown antineoplastic activity in tissue culture and low toxicity in mice. Twenty-four patients diagnosed with 25 cases of neoplastic diseases were involved in the studies. The patients' diagnoses included: adenocarcinoma of the prostate, stage IV (7 cases); adenocarcinoma of the breast, stage IV (3); adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum, stage IV (3); adenocarcinoma of the colon, status post resection (1); adenocarcinoma of the lung, stage III (2); squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, stage III (2); adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, stages II and IV (2); and single cases of adenocarcinoma of the kidney, stage IV; malignant fibrohistiocytoma, stage IV; glioblastoma multiforme, stage IV; basal cell epithelioma; and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, grade II. Only patients who had over six weeks' anticipated survival and who continued the treatment for over six weeks were eligible. In 23 patients, Antineoplaston A3 was administered in divided doses daily i.v. through a subclavian vein catheter. In one patient, the injections were given i.m. The length of treatment was from 44 to 478 days and the highest dosage was 76 mg/kg/24 h. Side-effects associated with treatment included febrile reaction (4 patients), vertigo (2), headache (2), flushing of the face, nausea and tachycardia (1 each). Adverse reactions were mild and occurred only once during the entire course of treatment. Desirable side-effects included increase of platelet count, increase of white blood cell count and increase of reticulocyte count. At the end of the study, there were 5 cases of complete remission, 5 of partial remission, nine of stable disease and six of increasing disease. The patients who obtained complete remission were diagnosed with cancers of the bladder, prostate, colon, and basal cell epithelioma. In view of its very limited toxicity and the interesting responses obtained, Antineoplaston A3 was submitted for Phase II clinical trials to establish its usefulness in cancer treatment.