Effects of various osmotic solutions on membrane properties of smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig ureter were investigated using the microelectrode and double sucrose gap methods. In Krebs solution, the mean membrane potential was -53 mV, chronaxie was 104 msec, length constant of the tissue was 1.03 mm, time constant of the membrane was 65.8 msec, and conduction velocity of excitation was 19.2 mm per sec. Hyperosmotic solution (1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 times the normal osmolarity) depolarized the membrane, generated the spike activity, reduced the length constant of the tissue, increased the time constant of the membrane, prolonged the chronaxie, and reduced the conduction velocity. Hyposmotic solutions (0.85 and 0.67 times the normal osmolarity) produced opposite changes on the passive and active characteristics of the membrane compared to findings in hyperosmotic solution except that the time constant of the membrane was increased in both hyper- and hyposmolar solutions. Increase in the time constant of the membrane and reduced length constant of the tissue in hyperosmotic solution can be explained by an increase in the internal resistance, including the cell to cell junctional resistance and shrinkage of the cell diameter (from 6.2 to 3.0 micrometer).