We evaluated the susceptibility of alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex) to mycoplasmal conjunctivitis induced by a strain of Mycoplasma conjunctivae isolated from domestic sheep by inoculation of three alpine ibexes with 1.2 x 10(6) colony forming units of M. conjunctivae in the conjunctival sac of both eyes. One more ibex was exposed to the infection by contact. Experimental animals were free of M. conjunctivae and ocular Chlamydia infection before inoculation. Conjunctivitis and serous to mucous lachrymation became apparent in all four ibexes. Clinical signs began within 2 days in inoculated animals and 22 days after the beginning of the experiment in the contact ibex. M. conjunctivae was demonstrated up to the 63th day post-inoculation by cultural and PCR-methods. After 63 days, histopathologic examination revealed nearly normal ocular tissues, and M. conjunctivae could be detected from two eyes only. No other infectious agents which might cause conjunctivitis or keratitis, including Chlamydia psittaci and Branhamella ovis, were involved. Our investigation indicates that sheep-strains of M. conjunctivae can induce conjunctivitis in alpine ibex, thus showing pathogenicity of this organism for Caprinae species other than domestic sheep and goats.