Techniques in which words are represented as vectors have proved useful in
many applications in computational linguistics, however there is currently no
general semantic formalism for representing meaning in terms of vectors. We
present a framework for natural language semantics in which words, phrases and
sentences are all represented as vectors, based on a theoretical analysis which
assumes that meaning is determined by context.
In the theoretical analysis, we define a corpus model as a mathematical
abstraction of a text corpus. The meaning of a string of words is assumed to be
a vector representing the contexts in which it occurs in the corpus model.
Based on this assumption, we can show that the vector representations of words
can be considered as elements of an algebra over a field. We note that in
applications of vector spaces to representing meanings of words there is an
underlying lattice structure; we interpret the partial ordering of the lattice
as describing entailment between meanings. We also define the context-theoretic
probability of a string, and, based on this and the lattice structure, a degree
of entailment between strings.
We relate the framework to existing methods of composing vector-based
representations of meaning, and show that our approach generalises many of
these, including vector addition, component-wise multiplication, and the tensor
We discuss the importance of examining level-specific reliability. We present a simulation study and an applied example showing different methods for estimating multilevel reliability using multilevel confirmatory factor analysis and provide supporting Mplus program code. We conclude that (a) single...
We have designed a multiscale framework to model dry foam dynamics. This leads to a predictive and flexible computational methodology linking, with a few simplifying assumptions, foam drainage, rupture, and topological rearrangement, to coupled interface-fluid motion under surface tension, gravity,...
We constructed an improved short form of the ANPS-the Brief ANPS (BANPS). Three studies demonstrated that the 33-item BANPS has a clear and coherent factor structure, relatively high reliabilities (for short scales), and theoretically meaningful correlations with a wide range of external criteria, s...
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